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What’s It Like to Cook on Mars?

What’s It Like to Cook on Mars?

Space food never looked so good

Researcher Sian Proctor made spam fried rice using dehydrated and preserved ingredients.

What is it like to cook on Mars? To find out, six researchers developed recipes in a simulated Martian base on Hawaii’s Mauna Loa for four months, and have finished their experiment, according to Associated Press.

The experiment, conducted by HI-SEAS (Hawaii Space Exploration Analog and Simulation), used a grant from the NASA Human Research Program to research ways to prepare food for long-term space exploration. The six astronaut-like researchers, selected from a pool of 700 applicants, prepared food using dehydrated and nonperishable ingredients in a Mars-simulated environment, meaning that they often experienced “communication latencies and blackouts, in close quarters, under strict water-use rules,” according to HI-SEAS.

Finding creative ways to cook nutritious, astronaut-friendly food is not easy, but the researchers used the resources that they had on the 8,500 foot high Mars-like field. They cooked with lots of Spam, coming up with recipes like spam fried rice, split pea and spam soup, spam musubi, and curried spam fried rice noodles. The crew held their own recipe contest, voting for the favorite dishes they’ve cooked or eaten during the mission.

The team’s findings will likely be revealed at the International Astronautical Congress in Beijing this year. Future space food just may be a whole lot better.

10 Best Mascarpone Recipes (Mascarpone Cheese Recipes)

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The 10 BEST mascarpone cheese recipes! They’re all quick and easy to make, healthy, sugar-free, and gluten-free, too.

Have you ever tried mascarpone cheese? It’s a smooth Italian spread, similar to cream cheese, but with a more buttery flavor. I buy it almost every week to spread on low carb bagels and English muffins.

The most common use for mascarpone cheese is tiramisu. That is definitely on my list to create a (sugar-free) recipe for, but I haven’t had the chance yet. Still, I already have lots of delicious mascarpone recipes that I make regularly. I just didn’t want to wait to share them with you!

Most grocery stores carry mascarpone cheese, but it’s also surprisingly easy to make your own at home. I need to try that sometime!

This collection of mascarpone recipes is the BEST of the best! And, they are all low carb, gluten-free, and sugar-free, so you can feel good about eating them.

1. 4-Ingredient Mascarpone Crepes from Wholesome Yum – These decadent crepes require only 4 ingredients, and no flour of any kind. Make them sweet or savory!

2. White Chocolate Truffles from Low Carb Yum – These truffles have a creamy white chocolate filling covered in rich dark chocolate.

3. Raspberry & Mascarpone Ice Cream from Step Away From the Carbs – A rich mascarpone ice cream with fresh raspberries swirled in.

4. Mocha Ice Bombs from Ditch the Carbs – These mocha ice bombs are the perfect cross between a frozen treat and a truffle.

5. Healthy Almond Berry Cake from Sugar Free Londoner – Gluten free and low carb, this moist almond berry cake has a creamy mascarpone icing.

5. Mascarpone Hazelnut Cheesecake Muffins from Ketogenic Woman – These cheesecake muffins are made with mascarpone instead of cream cheese.

7. Whipped Mascarpone Cream from Step Away From the Carbs – This twist on whipped cream is delicious with fresh strawberries.

8. Fat Burning Vanilla Smoothie from Tasteaholics – A rich, creamy smoothie is a great way to fill you up and start the day.

9. 4-Ingredient Cloud Bread Oopsie Rolls from Wholesome Yum – Oopsie rolls made with mascarpone make a deliciously buttery bread for sandwiches.

10. Mascarpone Cheese Mousse and Berries from Low Carb Yum – Mascarpone cheese mousse is easy to whip up and pairs perfectly with fresh berries.

Store cupboard recipes: Starters

Potato and corn cakes

A quick starter is just as easily a quick snack. These potato and corn cakes are perfect if you’re looking for a healthy afternoon pick-me-up with a cup of coffee or tea. They also are great to snack on before dinner, to stop you getting too hungry!

Get the recipe: Potato and corn cakes

Tuna and brown rice salad

A salad can be a great choice for light lunch, or a small starter before dinner. With this tuna and brown rice salad you’ll get all the vitamins you’ll need from the tinned sweetcorn and bottled peppers, while the tuna steaks provide a healthy dose of omega-3 and protein.

Get the recipe: Tuna and brown rice salad

Moroccan chickpea cakes

These moroccan chickpea cakes are a really inventive way to use those stocked cans of chickpeas. Using only store cupboard ingredients (just swap out fresh herbs for dried) and a couple of frozen vegetables from the freezer, you can make this delicious starter.

Get the recipe: Moroccan chickpea cakes

Tomato and chilli soup

This tomato and chilli soup can be adapted to suit whatever you have in your cupboards. Instead of fresh garlic, use powdered and you can swap out the fresh onions for frozen ones.

Get the recipe: Tomato and chilli soup

Lentil and chickpea soup

This is really warming and wholesome starter to any big lunch (or you can just make it on its own). Packed with protein from the legumes, it will keep you fuller for longer and even better, it’s made from all store cupboard ingredients.

Get the recipe: Lentil and chickpea soup

Sweetcorn fritters

These sweetcorn fritters are totally made with cupboard-found ingredients, and could even be turned into a tasty afternoon snack if you’re not quite ready for dinner yet!

Get the recipe: Sweetcorn fritters

Spicy baked chickpeas

A fantastically spicy starter if you’re looking for something to snack on while waiting for the dinner to cook, they make a healthier alternative to crisps – while keeping all the crunch.

Get the recipe: Spicy baked chickpeas

Deep Fried Mars Bar Recipe

Don Enjoys a Deep Fried Mars Bar at the ClamShell
(Source: ©Don Bell)

How to Deep Fry Mars Bars

The deep fried Mars bar recipe is really quite simple. Mars bars or the chocolate bars of your choice can be fried in the same kind of batter used for frying fish and onion rings.

It's strongly recommended that you first chill your bar in the refrigerator, but don't freeze it. After choosing your favorite batter recipe, mix the batter until it's creamy smooth and heat the cooking oil to around 360°F (180°C).

Coat the chilled chocolate bar completely in the batter, then carefully lower it into the hot oil and fry until the batter is a deeply golden brown in color. It takes a few minutes.

Remove from the hot oil and briefly allow the bar to cool on a wire rack, then serve while it's warm as is or with a scoop of ice cream or with whipped cream on top.

Be careful when eating, as the melted bar inside the batter is VERY HOT!

Old Fashioned Fish n' Chip Batter Recipe

This homemade batter can by used with the deep fried Mars bar recipe to coat your bars.

4 ounces plain flour (1/2 cup), 1/4 pint (1/2 cup) of warm water, 3 tablespoons olive oil, a pinch of salt, 1 lightly beaten egg white.

Sift the flour into a basin, make a well in the center and into this pour the olive oil mix well, and add the salt, then slowly add the warm water, stirring constantly until the consistency of thick cream is obtained.

Allow to stand for 2 hours or thereabouts, then stir in the lightly beaten egg white, and use as a coating for fish, or for fruits.

Contemporary Batter Recipe

This batter can be used for fish or onion rings, but when used with the deep fried Mars bar recipe, you might want to half the amounts, unless you're planning to have fish and chips for the main course.

2 cups flour, 1 teaspoon baking powder, 1 teaspoon salt, 1 egg beaten, 1-1/2 cups water. Pour ingredients into bowl and mix or whisk to make a smooth batter. Try adding just a wee pinch of baking soda or vinegar if you prefer a lighter batter. This makes a simple water and flour batter for deep frying.

What Do Fried Chocolate Bars Taste Like?

My wife and I visited the ClamShell while sightseeing in Edinburgh, and we ordered the Mars bars fried in batter. It was fascinating to watch the friendly staff slip the bars out of their distinctive red and black wrappers, deftly dip them into the batter, and then deep fry them to a golden perfection.

So, Don, what do they taste like?

Extremely SWEET and tremendously FILLING. But, they are amazingly DELICIOUS.

Deep frying seems to intensify the sweetness of the chocolate bar. It was truly a tasty, crispy treat, but one serving was all I that could manage. It was so unbelievably filling! I ate mine around 1:30 pm, and I wasn't hungry again until breakfast the next morning. One will definitely satisfy your sweet tooth!

Deep fried candy bars are not the only fried foods loved by the Scots. It's not difficult to find a chippy where precooked cheeseburgers, pizzas, haggis, black puddings, along with pineapple rings, bananas, ice cream, and even pickled eggs are dipped in fish batter and deep fried to create a crispy delicacy.

So, are you hungry yet? I dare you to try them!

Visit the ClamShell in Edinburgh

ClamShell Fish & Chip Shop, Royal Mile, Edinburgh
(Source: ©Don Bell)

The ClamShell Fish and Chip Shop is at 148 High Street on the Royal Mile, just a few doors east from St. Giles' Cathedral. Be sure to visit it when you're in Edinburgh. The Battered Mars Bar costs £3.00, at the time of writing.

The Fish (Haddock) with Chips and mushy peas is said to be excellent at the ClamShell, but their Braveheart Pizza (cheese, tomato, haggis and onion), and the Haggis Pudding with Chips are choices that I would really like to try when next in Edinburgh. I can't help it, folks, I really love haggis!

The young ladies in the above YouTube video are unknown to us, but they are clearly enjoying their Battered Mars Bars at the ClamShell on the Royal Mile.

Until you can visit Edinburgh and try this Scottish delicacy for yourself, use the deep fried Mars bar recipe above to make your own crispy treats. You'll love trying them!

Mars® is a trademark owned by Mars. Inc. The frying of battered Mars bars is "not authorized or endorsed by Mars, Inc."

Can You Substitute One for the Other?

The answer is: it depends. Because Meyer lemons have a sweeter, more floral flavor than regular lemons, they make an excellent substitute for regular lemons in dessert recipes.

However, if your recipe demands a bolder, more acidic flavor from its lemon juice (like this lemon vinaigrette) Meyer lemons aren&apost going to deliver quite the same results as regular lemons in these instances.

If you want to make a Meyer lemon recipe but don&apost have any on hand, you can substitute a mix of equal parts fresh lemon juice and orange juice or tangerine juice. You can also substitute equal parts lemon zest and orange, tangerine, or mandarin zest for a grated Meyer lemon peel.

Tips for perfect Mars Bar Slice

There are many slight variations of this recipe.

I&rsquove adapted this one from the the recipe my mum used when we were kids and others I&rsquove tried since then. I think I&rsquove created the ULTIMATE Mars Bar Slice recipe.

While it&rsquos a fairly straightforward process, keep these three tips in mind when preparing this no-bake slice.

1. Use good quality ingredients

There are only a few ingredients, so use the best. I use Cadbury chocolate, real Mars Bars, Kellogs rice bubbles, and brand name butter.

2. Use a whisk to get a super smooth melted mixture

When melting the butter, golden syrup and Mars Bars together over heat, the mixture can tend to be clumpy. I use a whisk to stir the mixture towards the end of the melting process and get a super smooth result every time.

3. Use a spoon for an even finish

After pressing the mixture into the tray, use the back of a metal spoon to flatten the slice evenly on top.

This Is the Food We’ll Eat on Mars

Danielle Frank

“Turn it just like this,” the uniformed instructor tells the alert crew of trainee astronauts gathered around the workspace. “And then this next piece twists in the other direction.” The first trainee approaches the table.

The instructor, Rupert Spies, is reassuring. “Or, if you don’t want épi de blé, you could just leave the dough as a regular baguette.”

We are at Cornell University, in a culinary classroom, where nine elite trainees are preparing for a simulated space mission. They are spending a week here learning how to cook on Mars. Today’s lesson is on baking bread and pizza from scratch.

The project, called HI-SEAS, is intended to help build a strategy for feeding a human Mars colony, analyzing energy and resource requirements and nutritional parameters, and exploring the hypothesis that giving astronauts a choice of tasty foods and allowing them to prepare their own space cuisine will significantly improve morale.

The study will culminate next year in a rigorous mission during which the astronauts — six final participants chosen from the nine here today — will spend 120 days isolated in a Martian habitat high on Mauna Loa, a volcanic mountain in Hawaii, with no vegetation in site, cooking and eating exclusively dehydrated and shelf-stable foods using skills and recipes they’re developing together this week. The kitchen here at Cornell is crammed with space-ready ingredients of all kinds: freeze-dried beef and chicken chunks, freeze-dried shredded cheeses of various kinds, dehydrated fruits and vegetables, powdered spices, seaweeds and agar, and a concentrated butter with all the moisture centrifuged out of it. From these building blocks, the crew will have to creatively feed themselves for four months.

One of the primary concerns about a human mission to Mars is: We simply don’t know how the human mind responds to spending months or years in an alien environment millions of miles from the other members of your species. “In space, you’re in a form of sensory deprivation,” says Kim Binsted, one of the HI-SEAS project leaders. “You don’t see the colors you’re used to. There’s no real-time communication.” So how can long-duration astronauts maintain a sanity-shielding link with humanity? Delicious, familiar food is crucial.

Rupert Spies Demonstrates Breadmaking to Astronauts

But it’s not easy. In order to survive a trip to Mars, Earth food has to be shelf-stable for at least a year — dehydrated if possible, canned if not. Making matters worse, the human sense of taste and smell diminishes dramatically in space. Crewmembers on the ISS and other missions get in the habit of drenching every meal in hot sauce to compensate.

“Deep frying is not compatible with life in a remote habitat on Mars.”To that end, Binsted and her collaborators, including Spies, a senior lecturer at Cornell’s hotel school, and Jean Hunter, a professor of biological engineering who helped develop the process for manufacturing Pop Rocks, are working with the carefully selected crew to explore ways of making dehydrated space food compelling. Teaching the crew to cook is essential, providing variety and choice in the diet, as well as a focused, pseudo-domestic communal activity for the team. The kitchen in the simulated habitat will include equipment chosen for energy efficiency and minimal space requirements: a convection oven, an induction cooktop, a pressure cooker, an immersion blender. They can cook whatever they want and are encouraged to experiment — within certain engineering limits.

“Deep frying is not compatible with life in a remote habitat on Mars,” says Hunter: with atmospheric pressure on Mars being about half of what it is on Earth, reduced air resistance to spattering oil would result in droplets throughout the confined crew quarters. In the Hawaiian simulation, the crew will be permitted 8 minutes of showering per week, and the habitat, while not completely sealed, will have very limited air exchange, so the atmosphere is expected to be far from fresh.

That, Binsted explains, is a possible explanation for astronauts’ reduced sense of smell, which is not fully understood. It could be simple saturation, that the nose’s sensitivity shuts down when it’s cooped up with strong odors. Binsted was a simulated astronaut herself in an FMARS mission in 2007, when, she recalls, “when the final bell rang, we all went outside and breathed the fresh air for an hour or so and then, as soon as we got back into the habitat, we realized it stank!”

The leading explanation, though, is the physiological effects of microgravity. At the same time as the Hawaiian simulated mission, another group will undergo simulated microgravity in Texas, spending four months straight on mattresses inclined at 6 degrees so their heads are lower than their feet. Their muscles atrophy, their faces puff up, and — most important — their nasal tissues swell, reducing airflow and the ability to smell. Both groups will be regularly tested with acoustic scans and airflow meters to see how the shape and function of their nasal cavities change over time.

Many of the crew members here have little to no cooking experience, but they’re eager to learn. Simon Engler, a roboticist who developed a remote explosive-hunting robot called Prairie Dog when he was deployed in Afghanistan, has never made bread before. “I always felt, the only time you think about food during a mission is if the food’s not good.” But he’s excited and proud of his edible creations today.

“I think this is the best pizza I’ve ever tasted,” says Yvonne Cagle, an Air Force colonel, MD, and qualified NASA astronaut. “But maybe that’s just because of the feeling that we made it together.”

Personally I think it’s the latter. The hot, yeasty crust is excellent, but the toppings of reconstituted potato slices, reconstituted freeze-dried cheese, reconstituted garlic and such may take a little getting used to. And that’s what the mission is all about — practicing, developing, polishing a new kind of cuisine for outer space.

“I will never go to Mars,” says Jean Hunter, “but I hope they’ll be eating my recipes.”

Steak With Anchovy Dressing (Entrecote à l'Anchoïade)


Anchoïade is a wonderful thing: intense and lovely, so add as much as you want to the top of the steaks. You will have more than enough sauce here for a couple of steaks, so keep any left over in the fridge to serve on grilled bread, or with vegetables such as endive, cauliflower and fennel, or stirred into boiled potatoes. You can add more oil and blend it to a smoother sauce, as many choose to do. I love this served with a Swiss chard gratin and frites. Bring the steaks out of the fridge an hour or two before cooking so they come to room temperature.


  1. For the anchoïade:
    About 3 tablespoons olive oil
    12 anchovy fillets in oil, drained and chopped
    2 plump garlic cloves, minced
    2 tablespoons chopped parsley
    1 teaspoon thyme leaves
    2 teaspoons good red wine vinegar
  1. For the steaks:
    2 tablespoons unsalted butter
    2 entrecote steaks (each about 220 grams / 8 ounces and 1.5 centimeters / 5/8-inch thick)
    2 tablespoons Cognac
    Camargue or other crunchy sea salt and freshly ground black pepper


  1. To make the anchoïade: Heat a tablespoon of the oil in a small non-stick frying pan. Add the anchovies and mash them to pulpy bits as they sizzle. Add the garlic and sauté for a minute or so.
  2. Stir through the parsley and thyme, and lastly add the vinegar, letting it cook until nearly all evaporated, scraping the sides of the pan with a wooden spoon. Set aside to cool, then transfer to a bowl and gradually stir in a couple more tablespoons of olive oil, mixing well to make a thick sauce.
  3. To make the steaks: Heat a heavy-based non-stick frying pan. Add a scant tablespoon of the butter and, when hot and sizzling, add the steaks. Cook over a high heat until the undersides have a good golden crust. Turn them over and do the same to the other side, then add the remaining butter to the pan. Sprinkle just a very few salt flakes over the meat (the anchovies will provide plenty of salt).
  4. When the meat is cooked to your liking, add the Cognac. Standing well back, you can put a lighted match to it if you like and flambé off the alcohol, otherwise just let it cook out.
  5. Remove the steaks to warm plates and spoon some of the pan juices over them. Dollop some anchoïade over each steak, add a good grind of black pepper and serve at once.

Recipes excerpted from Provence to Pondicherry: Recipes from France and Faraway by Tessa Kiros, published by Quadrille March 2017, RRP $35 hardcover.

Kohlrabi Recipes: How To Cook The Tricky Vegetable In Your CSA (PHOTOS)

Welcome to the inaugural installment of "WTF, CSA?" Each week this CSA season, we'll help you make use of your overflowing CSA baskets. You ask, we answer. That's how this works. Or rather, you shouted, "WTF?" into your CSA box and now we're going to tell what on earth to do with all that kohlrabi.

It's easy to see how kohlrabi could throw you off your game the first time you see it. It looks like someone teleported a vegetable from Mars right into your kitchen. But in truth, kohlrabi is incredibly versatile. Kohlrabi, cabbage, Brussels sprouts and kale are all cousins, so you can expect that any flavor that goes nicely with one, will be lovely with the other.

After asking a formerly vegetarian friend what she likes to do with kohlrabi best, she said, "Honestly, just peel it, slice it, sprinkle it with salt and eat it raw." We love her style and hope you follow suit. You can basically treat kohlrabi, both the green and purple varieties, like a sweet, overgrown radish. Do be sure to remove all of the peel (which is really tough), unless you plan to cook it until it's soft.

Kohlrabi is a crispy, crunchy alien vegetable that you can prepare in more ways than we were able to catalogue. Here are some of our favorites:

How to make this recipe-

Follow the instructions below to broast chicken at your kitchen.

  • At first, cut a whole chicken into eight pieces then wash all the pieces very well by freshwater. Drain off all water from the chicken pieces.
  • Now take 1-liter buttermilk in a container and sink all the chicken pieces into it. Close the jar and keep it in a refrigerator for 8 to 12 hours for marination. Remember, marinating time not exceed 24 hours.
  • After complete marination process, remove the chicken pieces from the refrigerator and drain off the buttermilk. Make sure all excess buttermilk drained off perfectly.
  • Now take all the spices (Turmeric powder, red chili powder, food color, ginger-garlic powder, salt, black pepper, and ground all spices) in a bowl and mix them well. Add this mixture on all sides of the chicken pieces.
  • Take another two bowls and add all-purpose flour in one bowl and egg white in another. Dip all the chicken pieces in egg white one by one then coated with all-purpose flour. All sides are coated perfectly by all-purpose flour.
  • Now take all the pieces in a tray and covered with a plastic paper. Keep the chicken tray in a refrigerator for a minimum of 1 hour but do not exceed 12 hours. Exceeding 12 hours could result in a dark coating when cooked. After this process, remove the chicken pieces from the refrigerator.

Cooking instructions

  • Take a Broaster (pressure fryer) and heat cooking oil in it at 360F degree temperature. If Broaster is not available, then use a pressure cooker for frying.
  • Dip all the chicken pieces one by one in hot cooking oil and then close the pressure cooker. Cook it with medium flame up to 7-8 minutes.
  • After 8 minutes open the pressure cooker and take one chicken piece out. Check it perfectly cooked or not. If it cooked perfectly then remove all the pieces from the cooker or Broaster.
  • Keep them on kitchen paper to absorb extra oil. After five minutes, you can serve your favorite broasted chicken.

Important information–

  • Don,t over marinate the chicken pieces. Do not over fry the chicken pieces. Fry 7-8 minutes then open the pressure cooker and check it. If you cook this in a Broaster then set the temperature to approximately 360° F.
  • Try to keep the flame medium to cook it perfectly.

Is broasted chicken healthy?

We know that most of the restaurant use unhealthy and used cooking oil to make fried chicken or broasted chicken. That is why fried chicken is not a good healthy recipe. But compared to regular fried chicken Brosting chicken is more healthy because it is perfectly cooked by pressure fryer. That is why it is easy to digest. If you make this recipe at your home with fresh cooking oil then obviously it will be a perfect healthy recipe for your family.

Thank you for reading this recipe. I hope you will make it in your home for your family. Please comment us after making “B roasted chicken recipe” at your home and tell us, how was the experience?